All the instructions required in order to knit a project.
Knitting patterns are written using abbreviations.
The crucial elements of a knitting pattern are
1) size and finished measurements
4) knitting instructions, and
5) finishing instructions.
To tension your yarn is to hold it comfortably in your fingers so that you can knit with it. The tension is the tightness or looseness of your stitches in consequence of how you are holding the yarn.